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TL;DR fullchain.pem is concatenation of cert.pem and chain.pem

I get the TLS certificates for nginx web server via letsencrypt. They provide the following 4 files on successful authentication

  • cert.pem
  • chain.pem
  • fullchain.pem
  • privkey.pem

here is how you verify that fullchain.pem is just a concatenation of cert.pem and chain.pem. Please note that the order of those two files is important.

diff fullchain.pem <(cat cert.pem chain.pem)

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